Date of Award


Document Type

Non Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Arts in Education




Differentiated Instruction

Capstone Instructor

Brian Boothe, Ed.D.

Second Reader

Tosca Grimm, Ed.D


English learner, English language learner, culturally responsive teaching, culturally and linguistically responsive teaching, teacher perceptions, independent learner


English Language Learners (ELLs) in the United States have continually underachieved in literacy. This paper evaluated research done on the effectiveness of culturally and linguistically responsive (CLR) practices on literacy improvement for preschool to early elementary ELLs. Multiple studies were synthesized in the areas of positive and negative teacher perceptions, effective culturally and linguistically responsive strategies, and creating independent learners. The research determined CLR teaching to be an effective method for improving teacher perceptions of ELLs. It was also shown that through culturally and linguistically responsive practices, teachers can offer successful literacy strategies. The studies additionally indicated CLR practices could assist in developing self-motivated learners. While the data was promising, the majority of the studies were completed with exclusively Spanish-speaking students using limited means. Therefore, more studies must be done on the effects of CLR practices on a more linguistically diverse participant pool using a larger variety of resources.

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