Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts in Education




Education with Emphasis in English as a Second Language

Capstone Instructor

Matthew Severns

Second Reader

Meagan Reissy


multilingual learners, writing, translanguaging, phonemic awareness, vocabulary


This paper offers practical insights into how early elementary classroom teachers can effectively support and engage multilingual learners (MLL) throughout the writing process. Data from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) (2012) documents that many MLL students consistently struggle to develop reading and writing fluency skills at the same rate as their Native English-speaking (NES) peers. The studies selected for this review focused on MLL students from prekindergarten through third grade and how classroom teachers can utilize supports they already have in place, such as working in buddy pairs or teaching phonemic awareness (PA), while utilizing new strategies like translanguaging and teaching a broader understanding of audience equip MLL students for a world in which writing is an essential part of effective communication. In addition to considering academic supports, the studies reviewed how teachers' perceptions of MLL students' L1 and their abilities also impact writing development. These insights are designed to immediately apply in the classroom, providing teachers with practical strategies and support for MLL students.

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