Date of Award


Document Type

Non Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Arts in Education




Differentiated Instruction

Capstone Instructor

Brian Boothe

Second Reader

Elisabeth Amirahmadi


decoding, phonemic awareness, phonological awareness, primary education, reading instruction, science of reading, systematic phonics


Becoming a proficient reader is critical if one wants to have a successful future. Unfortunately, students in the United States continue to fall well-below basic reading levels. Although a plethora of research on the science of reading exists, many educators have not implemented science-based instructional practices in primary classrooms. A total of 17 peer-reviewed articles were synthesized to show teacher education programs, phonological awareness, decoding skills, and specific interventions played a critical role in students’ acquisition of reading skills. The analysis discovered the science of reading has not been implemented adequately in primary classrooms or teacher education programs. However, the studies provided teaching strategies focused on phonological awareness to aid in students’ future reading skills. Additionally, studies offered guidance on instructional methods shown to help students decode words more consistently and accurately. It was determined that the education system needed to make drastic changes so all students could become proficient readers.

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