Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts in Education




Differentiated Instruction

Capstone Instructor

Professor Brian Boothe Ed. D

Second Reader

Professor Phyllis Burger Ed. D


fluency, phonics, intervention, literacy gap, reading intervention


Effective reading interventions are essential in closing the literacy gap. Many educators are unaware of what is considered best practice for struggling readers. This paper analyzed current research on several methods, including phonics, fluency, and mix-method reading interventions and their effects on students’ reading abilities. The effectiveness and fidelity of teacher-led intervention strategies were examined as a causal means to an intervention’s success. There was also a focus on using technology-based applications in various interventions. Research showed several intervention strategies could support struggling readers, including phonic analysis (word boxes), constant time delay, and repeated and continuous reading focusing on the dosage of words read. Research also indicated that educators were more successful when attempting to close the literacy gap if they provided interventions that suited students’ needs and were willing to change the intervention if they did not show growth. Additionally, the research revealed that teacher efficacy was essential in an intervention’s success, and educators must be competent in their instruction. These findings suggested a focus on selective intervention strategies and teacher efficacy as significant factors in closing the literacy gap.

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