Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts in Education




Differentiated Instruction

Capstone Instructor

Dr. Oluwatoyin Akinde Fakuajo

Second Reader

Theresa Starkman


accommodations, key stakeholders, self-esteem, twice-exceptional


Differentiating instruction for all learners is a tremendous challenge for educators in the elementary setting. This is especially difficult when students have disabilities or are gifted. In some cases, students have both and are therefore labeled as twice-exceptional. These students need special accommodations to be successful in the classroom. This paper analyzed a variety of qualitative and quantitative studies to determine the importance of using a variety of testing and observation methods to identify twice-exceptional learners, outline appropriate accommodations to support twice-exceptional learners, describe the importance of key stakeholders’ involvement in the process, and describe the effects of identification and programming on twice-exceptional learners’ self-esteem. The literature showed that a variety of assessment and observation measures needed to be utilized to identify twice-exceptional learners. In addition, twice-exceptional students succeeded when their teachers made appropriate accommodations and highlighted their gifts. Lastly, it was determined from the literature the effects of the twice-exceptional label on students’ self-esteem was mixed. Overall, the involvement of key stakeholders, implementing appropriate interventions and accommodations, and highlighting students’ gifts provided success for twice-exceptional learners.

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