Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts in Education




Differentiated Instruction

Capstone Instructor

Dr. Oluwatoyin Akinde Fakuajo

Second Reader

Theresa Starkman


achievement gap, opportunity gap, Black girls, mathematics


The research examined achievement and opportunity gaps for Black girls in the discipline of mathematics. Initiatives for mathematics programs were emphasized in secondary schools to encourage students to pursue degrees and careers in mathematics for economic advancement but failed to include certain minority groups. Researchers found underrepresentation of Black girls and women in mathematics programs, at the secondary and post-secondary level, and mathematics-related careers. Upon further investigation, researchers concluded there were achievement and opportunity gaps for Black girls in mathematics. This study was unique from other achievement studies that focused solely on gender or race because of Black girls’ double jeopardy. The purpose of the literature review was to determine how educators could close the gaps for Black girls in mathematics. While the literature review was inconclusive due to the limited research of Black girls in mathematics, there was evidence of how educators could support Black girls in mathematics by demolishing negative stereotypes of Black girls, increase positive socialization in class, and develop positive racial and math identities.

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