Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts in Education




Educational Leadership

Capstone Instructor

Oluwatoyin Akinde Fakuajo

Second Reader

Sara Kellogg


blended learning, high school, online credit recovery, socioeconomic status


As online learning grows, many school districts have turned to online credit recovery (OCR) courses to allow students to retake previously failed courses and earn credit toward graduation. Research is relatively new in this area, and results from different studies contradict each other regarding the effectiveness of OCR programs. Students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds represent a large percentage of those enrolled in OCR courses. Questions have arisen regarding whether OCR may contribute to a widening gap in achievement between advantaged and disadvantaged students. Results showed that OCR courses have the potential to help older high school students attain credit faster than traditional face-to-face credit recovery programs but often come at the expense of worse performance in college and lower workplace earnings. OCR courses in which instructors played a more active role in the classroom led to greater student academic success.