Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts

Chairperson (Advisor 1)

Dr. Kimora Kachelmyer

Reader (Advisor 2)

Dr. Charles Nuckles


Work is important in the lives of individuals for several reasons. First, there is the notion of reciprocity, or exchange. Whether one is an executive, an assembly-line worker, or a volunteer, each worker receives some form of rewards in exchange for his or her services. These rewards may be primarily extrinsic, such as money, or they may be intrinsic, such as the personal satisfaction that comes from providing the service. In either case, a worker has certain expectations concerning they type and amount of reward he or she should receive for services rendered. Second, work generally serves several social functions. The workplace provides opportunities for meeting people and developing relationships. Third, a person's job is often a source of status, or rank, in society. Work can be a source of social differentiation as well as a source of social integration. Fourth, work has a personal meaning for an individual. From a psychological standpoint, it can be an important source of identity, self-esteem, fulfillment, and self- actualization (Steers & Porter, 1987, 575-576). With the significance of work and considering the amount of time spent at work, it becomes important that work is meaningful and employees are comfortable with their work. Furthermore, it is important, from the point of view of the employer, that work actually is being done and there is productivity that can be accounted for in the organization. Motivation to work becomes crucial for success for both the employee and the employer.


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