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  • U.S. LGBTQ+ community represents 4.5% of the total population.1
  • MN LGBTQ+ community represents ~4% of total population.2
  • Unclear what percentage of LGBTQ+ are represented in PT/PTA professions.
  • APTA/MNPTA are attempting efforts to improve diversity in PT/PTA professions.3


  • Aim to understand the successes, barriers, and shared experiences of under-represented who established careers as PTs or PTAs.



  • PT/PTA clinicians and students from the LGBTQ+ community

Four Focus Groups

  • Recruitment through flyers and PT/PTA programs in MN
  • Virtual 90-minute focus groups
  • 2-4 participants with 2 PIs and 2 trained students

Data Analysis

  • Audio recorded, transcribed and de-identified using
  • Coding and analysis using NVIVO12

Major Themes

  • Major Theme 1: Belonging A sense of being approved of and accepted by society in general.4
  • Major Theme 2: Insufficiencies Something that is insufficient or falls short of expectations.4
  • Major Theme 3: Microaggressions Actions that often unconsciously expresses a prejudiced attitude toward a marginalized group.4
  • Major Theme 4: Potential Solutions Something that is used or done to deal with and end a problem.4


  • Lacking feeling of belonging/support
  • Invisible minority
  • “Insufficiencies”
  • All types of diversity
  • “Solutions”

Clinical Relevance

  • Need to address microaggressions in the class/clinic
  • Promoting LGBTQ+ acceptance and visibility in PT/PTA education
  • Improve representation and understanding in the clinic to increase comfort and safety of LGBTQ+ clinicians, students and patients
    • Use of preferred pronouns
    • Multiple options for gender and sexual identity in forms
    • Education for clinicians regarding LGBTQ+ issues
    • Welcoming pamphlets and signage



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