Document Type



Master of Arts

Capstone Coordinator (Advisor 1)

Eugene Bunkowske

Reader (Advisor 2)

James Found

Reader (Advisor 3)

Charles Lindquist


This study sought to answer the question, "what are the challenges that make it difficult for missionaries to fully utilize the Brewsters' Means to Bonding on the mission field". Missiologists Torn and Betty Sue Brewster developed an incarnational/bonding ministry strategy for a missionary entering a new mission field. The Brewsters' Means to Bonding has four required means and nine optional means that help missionaries practice incarnational/bonding ministry. Scripture, missiologists' writings and field research were gathered to answer the research question. The field research yielded twenty-six returned questionnaires and twelve interviews. The missionaries who were surveyed mentioned five challenges. Established protocol (when the way to enter a country is previously set-up for a missionary that may include how they live and learn about their host culture) was the number one challenge for implementing Brewsters' Means to Bonding according to those who chose to not implement the means. Culture, attitude, children and personality were four of the other challenges mentioned by the surveyed missionaries. Established protocol was never mentioned as a challenge for those who felt they had implemented Brewsters' Means to Bonding.

For those who felt they had implemented Brewsters' Means to Bonding, it was a result of assistance by the missionary sending agency and the missionaries already on the field. Those who felt they had implemented Brewsters' Means to Bonding believed that bonding was essential for effective ministry. The study discovered that no missionary, not even those who felt they had implemented Brewsters' Means to Bonding, utilized all four required means as described by the Brewsters.


Available when logged in with your CSP email address and password.

For users outside of the CSP community, use the "Request Access" button to submit a request for full text.