Degree Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education



First Advisor

Dr. Oluwatoyin Akinde Fakuajo

Second Advisor

Dr. Sally A. Baas

Third Advisor

Dr. Jerry Robicheau


The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a K-12 Hmong dual-language immersion program on kindergarten through fifth-grade Hmong students’ academic performance in the category of reading Hmong and English. Moreover, the parents of those students were investigated concerning specific factors they used in choosing a dual-language immersion program for their child. Hmong bilingual students have different perspectives about their cultural identities, retaining the Hmong culture, and learning English when the Hmong language was used as the instructional language. It was also imperative to determine the most prevalent factor that parents consider when selecting a program with a Hmong focus language. This study employed quantitative design to investigate a) the Hmong and English reading level for the Hmong dual-language third, fourth, and fifth-graders, b) the students' dominant language, and c) the parents' reasons for enrolling their children in the HDL program. ANOVA and descriptive statistics were used to analyze data collected from the Hmong Reading Assessment, the Minnesota Comprehensive Assessment, the Twelve Bilingual Dominance Scale, and the parent Likert-scaled questionnaire. The results indicated that years of HDL experience can boost dual-language students’ MCA reading scores while they maintain Hmong reading proficiency. The Twelve Bilingual Dominance Scale indicated that most of the HDL students identified themselves as balanced Hmong and English learners. Parents' reasons for HDL enrollment was primarily due to language preservation and home life support.