Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctorate of Education, Ed.D.


College of Education



First Advisor

Anil Mathur, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Patricia Garcia, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

Jessica deValentino, Ed.D.


The purpose of this qualitative multiple embedded case study was to explore the implementation of the Ministry of Education (MoE) bilingual education program in private schools in the Sultanate of Oman in light of the factors that impact students’ sociocultural, linguistic, academic and cognitive learning processes in the dual language instruction context. Data gathered through semistructured interviews and classrooms observations from 26 different bilingual private schools nationally, were analyzed in light of a conceptual framework based on the prism model and on effective international bilingual education implementation approaches, presented through the literature review. The data collected were crosschecked with the available MoE policy documentation, coded, triangulated and used together through thematic analysis to inform the findings. The results of this multiple qualitative case study underline differences among schools in implementing the program in the bilingual English/Arabic context, in connection with factors such as the bilingual program’s design and implementation, MoE regulations and perceived constraints in schools, teaching and learning practices, additional language/pastoral support for students, and in relation with the role of the school-based leadership. The findings underline the essential role of both the private schools and of the MoE in implementing increasingly effective bilingual education models, as to ensure improved long-term achievement for students in dual language programs.